From August 30th to October 24th a collection of my original linoleum cuts, commissions from The New York Times, are exhibited at the Bob Metrown Library and Mc Gill Library. Organized and presented by the Burnaby Art Gallery in Burnaby [ Vancouver area], British Columbia, Canada.
The On Line Catalogue
This interactive page provides a selection of linoleum cuts from the current exhibition and additional informations relative to my art works.It is somehow self defeating to try to label the pictures into categories, I nonetheless did group them for clarity of presentation into : Wars, Environment, Science, Health, Human Struggle, and Politics. Evidently, a number of these works belong to more than one defined single group.
The fear of being superficial regarding war depiction will remain strong, deeply rooted inside of me. Still it is one artist must and quiet unfortunately and ironically a tradition that stick to one’s skin dating from the most remote ancient times stone caves .
In 2003 I completed a series of 15 linoleum cuts to be featured in two separated special issues [ March & April ] of Harper’s Magazine. This was for an essay on the history of war titled “No More Unto the Breach”, subtitle ‘Why war is futile’. It was at the very moment when the Iraq war was about to start, still on debates, tensions all around the world were very high. The push for bursting into war from certain members of the elite [and no so elite] was in full swing…
Certainly, this assignments from Harper’s on the theme of war became my fate and consequentially one reason for being commissioned by the New York Times. During the period I was cutting into linoleum block for the Times the Iraq war was raging. In certain opinion issues I felt a great weight of responsibility resting on my shoulders: trying graphically to give “life” to death and devastation .
Miles away from the West Coast and while presently writing this post, President Obama announces from the Oval Office he is withdrawing the Military Forces from Iraq. War ending? Is it real, or just a swing of opinion’s minds?
The theme of war will always remain by far the more cruel and difficult for me to draw and address, if nothing else for the memories of my parents and families deeply affected by wars. The fear of being superficial regarding war depiction will remain strongly rooted deep inside of me. Still it is one artist must and quiet unfortunately and ironically a tradition that stick to one’s skin dating from the most remote ancient caves times: war endlessly ‘recorded’, condemned or glorified. It hardly matter if it is war against other men, the elephants, the bears or the whales…any difference?
All resembling with similar calls of despair, like the one from Nathaniel Deutsch: ” Save the Gnostics. In Iraq, a 2,000-year-old culture is about to be eradicated […] ”
Note: Save the Gnostics” linoleum cut was selected as ‘Notable Op-Ed Art of the Year 2007 ‘ on The New York Times website.
“As the aggregate number of American military fatalities in Iraq has crept up over the past 13 months – from 1,000 to 1,500 dead, and now to 2,000 – public support for the war has commensurately declined.”
“2000 Death in Context” Linoleum cut 2nd publication: Burnaby Art Gallery, Burnaby , B C, Canada. Exhibition catalogue “The Relief Print”, Oct.24 – Nov. 26, 2006.
” The niceties are up for debate: phased or partial withdrawal from Iraq would entail pulling troops back to their bases across the country, or leapfrogging backward to the nearest international border, or redeploying to bases in nearby countries.” by Ben Connable [a major in the Marine Corps]
” Cholera in Iraq: A Microscopic Insurgent” – Linoleum Cut 16″x9″- 41×23.5cm The New York Times – Op-Ed- Dec. 4, 2007
“Last week the United Nations warned of a potential epidemic of deadly cholera in Baghdad, noting that there had been more than 101 cases. This was hardly a surprise: cholera, caused by a bacterium that produces severe diarrhea, broke out in Kirkuk, in northern Iraq, in August and has now spread to at least half of Iraq’s 18 provinces. At least 30,000 Iraqis have displayed cholera-like symptoms and more than 2,500 cases have been confirmed in Kirkuk alone.” by Mark Drapeau
“Guantánamo has come to be seen worldwide as a stain on America’s reputation. The military commissions have failed to deliver justice, stymied by the federal courts’ refusal to permit the president to create a system at odds with United States courts-martial and the international law of war. Meanwhile, the number of detainees at Guantánamo has steadily dropped to a little over 300, from its peak of more than 700, no more than 80 of whom are likely to face any kind of American prosecution. Not a single defendant has gone to trial, and only one has pleaded guilty.” by David Bowker and David Kaye
“In Lebanon, Even Peace is a Battle”- “The New York Times – Op-Ed section – August 22, 2006 -Linoleum Cut: 12″x9.5”- 30x24cm
…rescuing Lebanon will require patience and persistence. Among countries that managed to stop wars that were tearing them apart, some 40 percent were at it again within five years. A major reason is that international donors pull out too quickly, before reconstruction takes root.” by Carlos Pascual and Martin Indyk
“Dealing With the Devil in Darfur “- Linoleum Cut:12″x9.5”- 30x24cm – The New York Times – Op-Ed – June 17, 2006
“…to ensure that nobody, government official or rebel, gets away with murder in Darfur” by Julie Flint
“Reflections on the Invasion of Iraq” . ” To mark this week’s fifth anniversary of the invasion of Iraq, the Op-Ed page asked nine experts on military and foreign affairs to reflect on their attitudes in the spring of 2003 and to comment on the one aspect of the war that most surprised them or that they wished they had considered in the prewar debate.” by The Editors of the New York Times .
“Darfur Fleeting Moment”#1- The New York Times- Week in Review- May 21, 2006 – Linoleum Cut:13″x9”-33x23cm
“For three years, despite the official rhetoric and the growing public support for bold international action to end the first genocide of the 21st century, Darfur has largely remained a neglected tragedy. Meanwhile, the humanitarian crisis grows more desperate. As the needs grow, money to meet them has dwindled. The World Food Program is halving daily rations to Darfurian refugees to a dangerous 1,050 calories a day. Unicef is being forced to scale back its operations, including its nutritional programs for children. A failure of international will has allowed Darfur to bleed into another year of rape, slaughter and starvation. Only strong leadership and urgent, resolute action can save lives before this moment of hope is lost.” by Anthony Lake and Francis Fukuyama
“Darfur Fleeting Moment” 2nd publication: Columbia University Press 2009. Full page inside the book titled : “All the Art That’s Fit to Print And Some That Wasn’t Inside the New York Times Op-Ed Page”, from award winning art director Jerelle Kraus “whose thirty years tenure at the New York Time includes a record thirteen years at Op-Ed.”
–“Darfur Fleeting Moment” 3rd publication: le Courrier International magazine [No 1003], January 2010, Paris. Titled “L’islam radical n’a pas une odeur de saintete”
Unpublished linoleum cuts
“Darfur Fleeting Moment” – The New York Times – Week in Review [ unpubished ] – May 21,2006 – Linoleum Cut: 13″x9″ – 33×23 cm
To artists incapable or unwilling to express vibrating turmoils I will stress that it is simply dishonest for at least not to trying to make images come from our guts. No everything must smell like the too famous ‘ready made urine vase ‘ of Marcel Duchamps. It is fine, but then again ‘what else can you show me? ‘
These two linoleums cuts are the only one presented in this exhibition that will remain unpublished by the Times. My submitted sketches [to be approved by the editors] included this two compositions. Also they did not get concidered I nevertheless decided to move on finalizing them by cutting two blocks… They summarize my very first outcry, my instant response to unjustices reported in ‘words’ in the newspaper. And concequantly my frustration not to have the true visual counterpart of these words being published.
Environmental issues are an unfortunate ‘popular’ news theme. It hardly matter if the paper labels it “men made” or “natural” catastrophes, survival [not just the one of our own species] is shaky.
The daily damage we are able to inflict on ‘the ‘ environment is the true reflection of our selfishness, laziness, greediness and madness; an attitude inspired by head of state Louis the XIV : ” Après moi, le deluge!” Every time I had the opportunity I tackled environment issues like in Harper’s Magazine in 2003 in an article titled “Letter From Alaska “ subtitled “ Seeking refuge in oil and in wilderness”.
“Not Out of The Wood Yet”
“ The people most vulnerable to the disappearance of forests are the poor: nearly three-quarters of the 1.2 billion people defined as extremely poor live in rural areas, where they rely most directly on forests for food, fuel, fiber and building materials. But those of us in the developed world are hardly immune. Smaller forests mean fewer predators keeping insects and rodents in check in the Northeastern United States, a phenomenon linked to the spread of Lyme disease and West Nile virus, among others.
Everywhere, forests prevent erosion, filter and regulate the flow of fresh water, protect coral reefs and fisheries and harbor animals that pollinate, control pests and buffer disease. That is why the single most important action we can take to protect lives and livelihoods worldwide is to protect forests. And one of the best ways to do that is to change how we think about their economics. Sustainable forests, in turn, can form the basis for the health and economic well-being of the poorest among us, while benefiting everyone else as well. What could be a more satisfying vision for Earth Day 2006? ”
Don Melnick is a professor of conservation biology at Columbia University. Mary Pearl is president of Wildlife Trust. [ “Presently Mary Pearl, an internationally known and respected conservationist, is Dean and Vice President of Stony Brook Southampton. For the previous 15 years, she was President of Wildlife Trust.”]
“Not Out of the Woods Yet” linoleum cut, 2nd publication: Le Courrier International magazine (No 992), November 2009, Paris. Titled “Alerte au trafic d’ebene et de palissandre”
“Given the scale of the effort required to tackle climate change, we need to pursue real emissions reductions anywhere we can find them.” by Stuart E. Eizenstat
“Weather changes are affecting farmers across the country: this year China experienced its worst drought in a decade, affecting nearly 99 million acres of farmland, while tens of millions of farmers faced water restrictions. Meanwhile, heavy rains flooded southern Chinese farmlands in June, killing hundreds. In traditional Chinese cooking, meat is generally used in small quantities, but Chinese are now demanding more of it, leading to the clear-cutting of forests and increased methane emissions. As Chinese shun fruit and tea in favor of Oreos and Coca-Cola, more factories, many powered by coal, are churning out processed foods and drinks.”
Jen Lin-Liu, a co-founder of a Beijing cooking school, is the author of the forthcoming “Serve the People: A Stir-Fried Journey Through China.
“Global Warming-Iceland” – The New York Times -Op-Ed – March 4, 2007 – Linoleum Cut: 16″x7.5″ – 41×19.5cm
“When the Al Gore documentary ”An Inconvenient Truth” received an Academy Award last week, it seemed a pretty sure sign that Hollywood believes that global climate change is taking place. But what about the rest of the world? Prompted by a New York winter that went from disturbing warmth to bone-chilling cold practically overnight, the Op-Ed page asked four writers from different corners of the globe to report on the erratic weather they’ve been experiencing. ” by The Editors of the New York Times
Note: “Global Warming-Iceland” Linoleum cut, 2nd publication: Le Courrier International magazine (numero 966 ), May 2009, Paris. Titled ” L’autre drame des Trois-Gorges .
“There was no time to outrun the water, but someone pushed my grandfather up into an olive tree along with his little brother, whom Lorenzo held onto with all his strength. The roar of the sea was deafening — the tidal wave crested at more than 40 feet — and fight though Lorenzo did, the impact broke his clutch on Giuseppe. No one will ever know how long my grandfather wandered the ruined coast, calling out the names of his brother, of his family. Everything Lorenzo had ever known was destroyed. Across the straits, Messina — one of the most ancient cities in Europe — had been annihilated. More than 50,000 were dead. It took only a few hours for civilization to break down among the survivors. Looting ran rampant; thieves cut fingers from the dead rather than waste time prying their rings off. The 1908 earthquake stands as the most lethal natural disaster in recorded European history. (And only the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 has dwarfed it recently.) Nearly 100,000 people perished, including all 16 of my grandfather’s relatives in Via Madonell ” by John Bemelmans Marciano
“Haiti is everybody’s cherished tragedy. Long before the great earthquake struck the country like a vengeful god, the outside world, and Americans especially, described, defined, marked Haiti most of all by its suffering. Epithets of misery clatter after its name like a ball and chain: Poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. One of the poorest on earth. For decades Haiti’s formidable immiseration has made it among outsiders an object of fascination, wonder and awe. Sometimes the pity that is attached to the land — and we see this increasingly in the news coverage this past week — attains a tone almost sacred, as if Haiti has taken its place as a kind of sacrificial victim among nations, nailed in its bloody suffering to the cross of unending destitution.
Whether they can read or not, Haiti’s people walk in history, and live in politics. They are independent, proud, fiercely aware of their own singularity. What distinguishes them is a tradition of heroism and a conviction that they are and will remain something distinct, apart — something you can hear in the Creole spoken in the countryside, or the voodoo practiced there, traces of the Africa that the first generation of revolutionaries brought with them on the middle passage.” by Mark Danner. He is the author, most recently, of “Stripping Bare the Body: Politics, Violence, War,” which chronicles political conflict in Haiti, the Balkans, Iraq and the United States.
.Science a very peculiar field for the layman that I am. It is very unclear if in anyway I can come out with one single word that will defer from what has been commonly define. The fact that my cousin Michel happen to be a scientist does not help me much on this matter.
My concerns about certain science discovery applications are real; but then again, I am knowledgeable of only a very few and not in deep. It is important to point out that what is frequently refer as ‘science’ is nothing else than a miss-word for ‘applications from a scientific discovery’: little to do with the cow itself, rather the milking of the cow.
My wandering in this respect does not limit itself to the world of science but rather to any ‘inventions’, ‘findings’, ‘ideas’ generated by an human mind [ including mine, my case being a ‘lack of ‘]: any thoughts or action generate consequences . A question will always remain for who and for what will this applications turn ‘positive ‘or ‘negative’? An answer could be found from the writings of French 17th mathematician, inventor, physicist and writer Blaise Pascal: ” Science without conscience [-ness] is nothing but the ruin of the soul “.
“Nuclear Hubris in Idaho”
“At the Idaho Falls public meeting, a former nuclear safety specialist who had spent 16 years doing risk assessments and safety analysis on the test reactor before her disputed departure this spring said that it had been out of compliance with safety and earthquake regulations for years, and that the department’s environmental impact report “had serious omissions that significantly understate the risk to workers and the public.” She had routinely seen the department “sweep safety issues under the rug so they could start up the reactor on schedule.” Sound familiar? ” by William Broyles Jr. [a former editor in chief of Newsweek and Texas Monthly.]
Consequently of not being born physically strong , as a child I spend long winter days fighting fevers resulting missing school. While even less fortunate children severely affected by tuberculosis where languishing in hospital beds, somewhere in a remote part of my village ; on the daytime nurses where rolling theirs beds outdoor even by freezing temperatures, they were spending hours laying down, rapped into blankets, waiting and hoping the rays sun would help them cure… health, where do we get this from?
” Patenting Life ” -The New York Times Op-Ed – February 13, 2007 – Linoleum Cut: 12.5″x9.5″- 32×23.5cm
This image could summarize one of the rare assignments where all the sketched ideas , I submitted after a weekend of good and solid work, got rejected one Monday morning. The editors did not want to hear about cut bodies parts [ even so its was somehow implied by the written opinion text]. Consequently I was left with one hour to come out with a new idea. No doubt, the child inside this glass balloon waiting for his/her fate to be transform into something else is…me.
“You, or someone you love, may die because of a gene patent that should never have been granted in the first place. Sound far-fetched?
Unfortunately, it’s only too realGene patents are now used to halt research, prevent medical testing and keep vital information from you and your doctor. Gene patents slow the pace of medical advance on deadly diseases. And they raise costs exorbitantly: a test for breast cancer that could be done for $1,000 now costs $3,000. Why?
Because the holder of the gene patent can charge whatever he wants, and does. Couldn’t somebody make a cheaper test? Sure, but the patent holder blocks any competitor’s test. He owns the gene. Nobody else can test for it. In fact, you can’t even donate your own breast cancer gene to another scientist without permission. The gene may exist in your body, but it’s now private property. ” by Michael Crichton
” Dreams Deferred” #1-The New York Times – Op-Ed page -February 19, 2006- Linoleum Cut:13″x9″ – 37x24cm
- “In fact, during clinical experiments at the National Institute of Mental Health, human subjects deprived of light at night for weeks at a time exhibited a segmented pattern of sleep closely resembling that related in historical sources (as well as that still exhibited by many wild mammals). The subjects also experienced, during intervals of wakefulness, measurably higher levels of prolactin, the hormone that allows hens to sit happily upon their eggs for long periods. These elevations of prolactin reinforce historical descriptions of complacent feelings at “first waking” and, back then, probably helped calm people’s worries about the night’s perils. Prolactin is also what differentiates segmented sleep, with its interval of “non-anxious wakefulness” that nearly resembles a meditative state, from the tossing-and-turning insomnia we medicate against. “Let the end of thy first sleep raise thee from thy repose: then hath the body the best temper; then hath thy soul the least encumbrance,” wrote the moralist Francis Quarles.”
- A. Roger Ekirch, a professor of history at Virginia Tech, is the author of “At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past.”
Historically, societies in their ruling mode have being responsible for generating ‘human struggle’. To the question “why?”, who did not get as an answer ” because I said so… ” ? We remain visualy constently baffled between two genre choices: the “funny” or the “cleaver”. Historically disfunctioning visual works have served, amount other things, handsomely ‘entertainment’. This leave little room for anything that require delivering sense of ‘dignity, respect, care…compassion, sensitivity’. While esthetics have endorse profitable , comfortable and consumtion-ism ‘design’ I made my choice to favor matters that call for expressing mood and atmosphere, for the need a creating physical and emotion rendering within the image.
” Summer of my Discontent “-The New York Times – Op-Ed – September 17th, 2005 – Linoleum Cut, 14.5″x9.5” – 37x24cm
” Summer of my Discontent” is, in many ways, a classic: a young man in conflict with his father [ in the context a royal family in Africa]. Commissioned stories on conflicting cases may, strangely, resemblance some of our own [ past experiences], if the case, the art work may turn being auto-biographic. At that point, it does not matter where the story come from and who is telling it …at the very moment I was cutting this linoleum block, even so I lack good pedigree it was the ”Summer of my Discontent” too.
“For the next 10 years, I lived in a self-imposed exile, cutting all ties to my community in Ghana and the United States. At one point I didn’t call or write anyone in my family for two years. Completely Americanized and utterly nervous, I returned to Ghana in January 2000. It was two months after Father had vowed not to speak with me again until he saw me “face to face.” by Mohammed Naseehu Ali [ is the author of “The Prophet of Zongo Street.”]
Paris Riot – ” Be French or Die Trying “-The New York Times – Op-Ed page – November 9, 2005 – Linoleum Cut:16.5″x9.5”- 41x24cm
- An outbreaking riot by youngsters in Paris suburbs’ . Very ironically titled ” Be French or Die Trying ” , so much for me for being born in France !
- “Yet older residents also resent what they see as the unnecessary brutality of the police toward the rioters, the merry-go-round of officials making promises that they know will be quickly forgotten, and the demonization of their communities by the news media. Second, the riots are geographically and socially very circumscribed: all are occurring in about 100 suburbs, or more precisely destitute neighborhoods known here as “cités,” “quartiers” or “banlieues.” There has long been a strong sense of territorial identity among the young people in these neighborhoods, who have tended to coalesce in loose gangs. The different gangs, often involved in petty delinquency, have typically been reluctant to stroll outside their territories and have vigilantly kept strangers away, be they rival gangs, police officers, firefighters or journalists.” Olivier Roy
Hard to define what is not political. Directly or indirectly can we find an activity generated by a human not affected by [or not affecting] politics? Not counting politics affecting politics. Not necessary limited to war, environment, science, health … but affecting the ‘arts’, the creation of an image for the media as well…
“Four Easy pieces”- The New York Times – Op-Ed – June 25, 2005 -Linoleum Cut:16″x9.5 – 41×24 cm
‘ Politics’, big or small, most of the time are appropriately view with cynicism by the general opinion as a melange of “déjà vu” and hopelessness, seen as the untouchable and the unmovable ” business as usual“. Also it is very tempting, I do refrain myself as much as possible falling too easily into sarcasm. A part from looking short and cheep, if not carefully monitor by an artist, it may result into feeding “business as usual”, pointing toward the mirror of the issue instead of this core. Creating reverse effects by adding gasoline to the fire. A criticism from a cleaver Frenchman explain it to me as such ” you are looking for talking to the crowd and you are presently urinating in front of the toilet door.”
“Four Easy Pieces” The mess is especially shocking because it amounts to a death sentence for more than 6 million Africans a year who die of preventable and treatable causes, including undernourishment, a lack of safe drinking water, malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS. ” by Jeffrey D. Sachs [director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and the author of “The End of Poverty.”]
“Street vendors casually closed up their food carts and wheeled them off to the shadows. Bustling streets slowly emptied as bars and restaurants shut up shop early under orders from the new junta. No signs of panic anywhere. As the rain battered down from the heavens and I sat under the canvas sharing khao tom and watching television with the smiling soldiers, I wondered whether they really would have shot someone if they were ordered to. I’m sure they would have. After all, that’s what they’re here to do.”
by Ismail Wolff [a freelance reporter based in Bangkok.]
” Two Can Make History”. Introduces the historical event of Hilary and Obama neck to neck to the nominee Democrat party race…
As far as little ‘history ‘ is concerned, this linoleum cut was never reproduced in the paper as presented in this exhibition [with this big black pattern in the middle], it is the proofing image coming straight from my printing press. This image appeared the next day on the paper with two text columns inserted in it on the center. An example of the dissociation between what goes on in ones studio and what goes to print .
“Of course, we again are hearing the old discouraging response: No, Mrs. Clinton cannot share the ticket because history shows that “the public mind” is too conservative to accept both a black man and a white woman in the seat of power. But if history offers a lesson here, it is not that Americans cannot handle too much change at one time or that we must inch our way, one by one, through the door of equality. Rather, it is that opportunities for genuine change are rare and when they occur we must kick the door off the hinges while we can. It is much harder to pry open the public mind once it has shut itself up again.”
by Debby Applegate is the author [“The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher.” ]
” Two Can Make History” Linoleum cut 2nd publication: Invitation for this current exhibition card “Linocuts by Raymond Verdaguer : ” The New York Times Commissions ” , organized and presented by the Burnaby Art Gallery, Burnay [ Vancouver area ] British Columbia, Canada.
“Politics “of Illustrating Author’s Words
Commissioned images for the media do not have a naive importance, they do have in many ways to conform with the editorial views. Nonetheless challenging them or bringing a different light does not mean that they will be necessary rejected or requested to be modified. One must remain daring.
One real disturbing general pratice [not only and particularly related the Times ], the type size used for illustrator credited name is unbelievably small, very close to invisible! It’s a total disregard for the visual art work, reflecting clearly how unimportant the publishing world consider creators and illustrators at large. In France, reputable publications credit me on equal footing with writers, sometimes they even provide a contributor’s section crediting each participants with a small bio and a photo [in their paper and website ]. It is simply unfair for Canada and the States to continue considering illustrative images as a subordinate to a text. It is discriminatory as one find him [her] self reduced of being consider as the servant of a written text. Can any one explain me this rational? In which way an image is inferior to a written text in its telling function and capacity?
5:30 PM is not a number on time, but the hour when the ‘exam copy’ his removed from your hands [ scratching or modifying the linoleum block ends sharp], too bad if you mess it up and let your chance of speaking out run away. In a flash, good or bad this intimately private entity is taken away from you and will becomes public: from now on your art becomes permanent unforgiving record, for ever it will be judged …
7 :00 AM, next morning , the reproduction of my block is inside a newspaper laying down on the ground at the neighbor’s entrance door. Did my message came across or did it failed? “Art is a Life Sentence.” [Sybil Andrews]
I gratefully acknowledge The editors and art directors of the New York Times for considering and trusting my works and commissioning me assignments bases on important and difficult issues, the Burnaby Art Gallery for organizing and sponsoring this exhibition, The Bob Prittie Metrotown Library and Mc Gill Library for sheltering the event. Special thanks to: A.B., Susan G., Stacey C., Brian R., Earl K., Bob M.
This show is dedicated to all the ‘beings’ too soon gone or still alive, who did crossed my past, who give, supported, shared…and made a mess; by all means contributing on shaping who I am [ or who I am not] as a person and consequently as what Vincent Van Gogh defined so accurately and humbly ‘a worker’!
Libraries locationBob Prittie Library 6100 Willingdon Avenue Burnaby, British Columbia Tel: 604.436.5400 open Monday to Friday 9 a.m.-9 p.m., Saturday 9 a.m.-6 p.m. and Sunday 1-5 p.m. McGill Library 4595 Albert Street Burnaby, British Columbia Tel: 604.299.8955 open Monday to Friday 10 a.m.-9 p.m., Saturday 10 a.m.- 6 p.m. and Sunday 1-5 p.m.
Card texts are a copyright of the Burnaby Art Gallery 2010. Linoleum cuts, photographs and texts copyright Raymond Verdaguer, 2010.